Chapter 3

CAPITAL COST -
DYNAMIC CONCEPT (josavere)

In terms strictly financiers, if a company doesn't generate value for the shareholders; does not obtain yields superior to the cost of capital, is not fulfilling its reason of being. The verification of this statement requires mathematical calculations that consist of the difference between the indicators of patrimonial yield and the cost of capital, manage mental indicator that must be including in all the financial information like complementary note indicating the methodology used for knowledge of the interested parties.
The cost of capital is necessary in the evaluation to new projects of investment, in the valuation of companies in march and the measurement of the atmosphere of businesses.
Briefly let us remember the possible components of the financial structure of a company, that is to say:

• Suppliers (C1)
• Loans of short term  (C2)
• Loans of long term  (C3)
• Labor liabilities (C4)
• Bonds  (C5)
• Common shares  (C6)
• Preferred shares (C7)
• Retained profits  (C8)
 ASSETS Current Assets Capital of Work Fixed assets
 LIABILITIES AND PATRIMONY Current liabilities Liabilities in the long term Patrimony

So that the financial structure is adapted, it must have a component of equity capital and long term debt that sufficiently covers the fixed assets and the required minimum with current assets to operate. It must have to use to the maximum possible, of lines of credit of promotion that exist the particular case and to complete a combining debt, in a proportion with adapted indicating of cover that does not imply financial risk, and equity capital: common shares, preferred shares and retention of profits.
Go to analyze the cost of the different components of  the capital structure:

1. SUPPLIERS (C1)

They offer credit, which implicitly has a financial cost equivalent to the interest rate and the time. The discount by payment on counted represents the cost of this source.

 FV: known (future value) PV: known (present value) n: known (time) i: ? (cost of the supplier)

If the discount pays attention technically, must be superior to the rates of the market so that he is attractive and consequently turns out very expensive not to take advantage of them.

2. SHORT-TERM LOANS (C2)

The preparation of a graph is suggested that represents the cash flow and that indicates all the payments (specific commissions, expenses, interest and others) and the net income. The calculation of the effective rate using the financial computer, or  any other method represents the cost of this source (C2).

3. LONG-TERM LOAN (C3)

The analysis is similar to the previous one. In both cases it is very important to consider the risk of the country for indebtedness in foreign currency.
Is clear that the indebtedness as short and long term t imply a payment of interests, which are deductible of taxes, reason why in principle, the cost of the debt is minor who the cost of the other sources of capital. The reduction calculates applying the factor to the cost previously obtained (1- t), being t, the rate of taxes.
C (1 - t) = Cost of short time debt= C2
C (1 - t) = Cost of long time debt = C3
It is recommended special care of any additional condition that is agreed to. For example: if for a loan of two million, an average of a million is due to maintain during three months or those that really are, (by unnecessary extensions), is  over- cost equivalent to the difference between the interests that are recognized, in case that and those exist  and received to the effective interest rate.

4. LABOR LIABILITIES (C4)

It is important in some countries; base on the Actuarial Calculation, the actuaries properly authorized considers the cost, which is deductible from taxes.
C4 (1 - t) = cost of labor debts = C4

5. BONDS (C5)

There are special modalities of loan that directly takes the companies from domestic or international investors; consist of a certificate that it indicates that a company took in loan money that is committed to reimburse in a future date plus a periodic amount of interests. For its emission it is important to consider the risk of the country for the foreign investors. Example:
Bonds of nominal value of \$1’000.000
Sale price: \$900.000
Interest: 26% annual
Date of emission: In 21/2.000
Date of victory: 4 years later
The previous thing indicates that from the financial point of view, simply it is a debt with special characteristics and that a cost has that calculates elaborating a graph of the cash flow and applying a formula of financial mathematics.

6. COMMON SHARES (C6)

The common or ordinary shareholders are the proprietors of the company. To increase the value of the share in the market constitutes the clearest objective of the management.
The common shares have a residual right: they receive payment after the of interests and obligations with the state. Through its right to choose, they control the company appointing a board of directors and public auditor; they must align preferences to conserve its proportional part in the property of the company, in case that new emissions take place.
In addition, they must right to inspect accounting books, within the legal regulations; they can freely transfer the shares in the market; its responsibility is limited the value of the individual contribution and logically it has right to a dividend like compensation for its investment, which is extracted like part of the net profits, previous decision of the general assembly of the company, as far as the amount, the dates of payment and their form, which should be in cash or stock.

As part of the base of an indefinite life will be necessary to cancel dividends to perpetuity, consequently (d1, d2, ... , dn) and its cost (C4) is deduced thus:

 P: price of the share (Value to calculate) n: periods d: dividend PV: considered sale price r: rate of discount of the investor

In the numerator, we are supposing extreme a fixed one through time, in which case they would be perpetual monthly payments and the cost:

Let us analyze a little the previous formula. The denominator (p) does not have any problem, represents the net value received by each share; it frees of the expenses of emission and positioning in the market.
Actually, the dividends (d) are subject to variation. If we assumed annual increases every year (g) the cost it would be:

This formula assumes a constant growth (g).In the practical one is unreal to suppose a constant dividend; we cannot either predict an equal increase every period no matter how efficient is the company she is in favor subject to crisis. What we do?
The scene of the real life is the following one: The shareholder who wishes to invest guides by the financial indicators that the offer means to him:
a. Relation price  /intrinsic value (Q of Tobin)

Q of Tobin = price of stock market / intrinsic value (a)
(a) intrinsic value = net patrimony / N° of shares in circulation
RPG = price in stock market / UPA (profit of share last year)

b. Relation price gain (RPG)

c. Relation Gain Price (RGP)

d. Index Beta: it determines the level of risk of the action compared with the market. In other words it establishes what so sensible is the yield of the share before   movements in the yield of the market.

BETA = 1 indicate that the yields of the share vary in proportion to the yields of the market.
BETA > 1 yield of the share varies more than proportionally to the market variation.
BETA < 1 yield than less proportional to the variation of the share in the market.

e. Yield of the dividends

f. Stock-exchange capitalization: supposedly it indicates the value of the company in stock market. it's also a theoretical concept because it implies that a pressure of the demand would not react in case their values is a low price.

g. Frequency of quotation: it indicates the number of rounds in which the shares in the run thing of the year has compromised.

h. Stock–exchange: it measures the dynamics of an action (facility to buy it or to sell it).

Base on this information, he investor will evaluate the stability of the dividend and the expectation of yield that the delay to calculate if he buys (invests or not).

 Po: market price PI: investor price d: dividends that will be maintained during the investment r: investor cut rate PVn: considered sale price at the moment in which hopes to redeem its investment

The comparison between the price calculated by the individual investor (P I ) and the price of market (Po) will be the base to make the decision whether to purchase or no. Yes P I > Po, buys and otherwise no.
The important is that the management of the company is oriented to increase the value of market of the share, objective that is obtained in the measurement that it obtains a rate of growth that widely surpasses the interest rates in the market that stable generates value; present good index of stock-exchange and other analyzed indicators previously. It is required financial projections, properly sustained because the shareholder makes a decision towards the future. It should prevail the created one culture because the joint-stock companies handle money of public in general.
By the arguments previously exposed more practice turns out to use as cost of the common shares (C4) the rate of cut, which pays attention by enterprise policy like the minimum attractive return for the shareholders.

7. PREFERENTIAL SHARES (C7)

There are a hybrid among the debt and the own capital (common share). In practice behave like a debt. Besides the common characteristics of shares, the preferential have an independent, priority dividend of the result that be obtained for the common stock holders and its cost is equal to:

 dp: preferential dividend P: share net price

8. COST OF RETAINED PROFITS (C8)

The only reason that justifies profit retention on the part of a business is its capacity to obtain performances over the rate of cut of the individual stock holders, or to the cost of opportunity properly analyzed. Otherwise, it should deliver profits and to leave that each stock holder arrange to his way of the I mount distributed. In practice, the decision turns out to be easy when is a matter of companies dominated by a few associates (or by one), a very common case.
If it is a matter of open companies, the management should support with technical calculations a decision of this type, in whose case the cost is appraised with the rate of cut.

The rate of cut in itself is fixed by business policies, keeping in mind the characteristics of the companies and the conditions of the surroundings. The great advantage of the retention of profits consists of the agility of the process and elimination of the expenses inherent in an emission of shares, on behalf of the company, although its cost can be greater than the cost of the indebtedness, because does not have deduction of taxes.

THE COST OF CAPITAL

With the values considered for each one of the studied alternatives of financing previously, we come to prepare a matrix that serves to calculate the average of the different sources from financing which represents the capital cost a determined date, because this one changes periodically as they vary the financing sources. For that reason he is very advisable, using the spreadsheet the elaboration of a matrix that maintains updated the cost of capital of such form permanently that can be calculated as it is required for the decision making, following way:

 C1: cost of suppliers P1: participation of suppliers C2: cost of loans of short time limit P2: participation of loans of short time limit C3: long-range Cost of loans P3: long-range Participation loans C4: cost of the passive labor one P4: participation of the passive labor one C5: cost of the bonuses P5: participation of the bonuses C6: common cost of stocks P6: common participation of stocks C7: preferential cost of stocks P7: participation of the preferential stocks C8: cost profits retained P8: participation profits retained

Example:

In order to calculate the cost of capital between a the following matrix and introduces the corresponding information.

___________________________________________
1. Usually they are not considered like capital source, but actually if they are it.
2. Usually they are not considered like capital source, but actually if they are it.
3. They are part of the capital but they behave like debt.